24 Rules to the SQL Formatting Standard

Attractive smiling young woman learning SQL on laptop computer while sitting in the kitchen.
Writing queries to a database requires knowledge about SQL syntax, but this is not all you should know. Best practices for writing professional SQL code require good formatting skills. In this article I discuss why this is so important and what are the basic rules you should follow. Why is it Worthwhile to Format SQL Code? Beginner SQL programmers often don't pay much attention to formatting their code. If you think formatting is something that can be safely ignored, look at the code below:

8 Most Common Programming Errors Made by Beginners

Learning to code can be fun and absorbing but it can also be a rocky road at first. If you have a feeling that your learning process could be faster and more efficient, take a look at this list of common programming mistakes. Maybe you’re making some of them? When I first started learning to code it was a time of constant fire in my belly—I was so excited about every new issue and every new technology!

New Course Launch: How to Read and Write JSON Files in Python

Providing various types of data in a unified way is one of the core concepts of web communication. In recent years, JSON text files have become extremely popular due to their simplicity and universality. Vertabelo Academy’s recent course—How to Read and Write JSON Files in Python—explains how to manipulate JSON files in Python. If you work with Python and want to learn a practical skill in high demand, you’re in the right place.

New Course Launch: Python Data Structures in Practice

Do you know the feeling when you’ve read the theory behind some programming concepts but you’re at a loss when it comes to writing actual code? Vertabelo Academy’s new course—Python Data Structures in Practice—addresses this exact problem by explaining the practical aspects of basic data structures. The course discusses frequent use cases and teaches you optimal solutions to common problems. As a bonus, you’ll create a real Python game!

Are You Ready To Celebrate Geek Pride Day?

Are you a geek? Today being a geek means being smart and passionate about certain complicated subjects like mathematics, programming, science fiction films, and fantasy books. That sounds cool. So why not join the celebration of Geek Pride Day on May 25th? What’s a Geek? Let’s first define who can be called a geek. According to Wikipedia, this term was originally used to describe "eccentric or non-mainstream people". Today the word typically refers to an expert or a person who is passionate about some hobby or intellectual pursuit.

Excel Alternative: What to Learn as a Data Analyst

Excel spreadsheets are quickly becoming obsolete thanks to the emergence of the latest data analytics tools and languages such as Python, Java, R, and Microsoft HDInsight. However, a large number of companies still use digital spreadsheets, creating a lot of problems for modern business data analysts. Analyzing data through excel is a poor choice because of reasons like errors in data validation, a poor shared workbook feature, no multi-user editing, inaccurate data, and safety concerns, making it necessary for you to switch to better and advanced alternatives.

Why Use Python in Marketing?

Python can help you get more insights from your data, make better-informed data-driven decisions, automate many routine activities, and increase the ROI from your marketing campaigns. Interested? Then let’s see how exactly Python can boost your marketing efforts. How Can Your Marketing Activities Benefit from Python? As a marketer, you probably face a number of challenges: Ads are getting more expensive. Previously profitable marketing channels, like content marketing, are becoming crowded.

How to Become a Data Analyst

Data analyst is a relatively new position available at several companies. It’s also a high-salary specialization without a complex learning curve. Thus, many professionals are looking to make a career switch to this burgeoning field. In this article, I’ll explain what skills you need to become a junior data analyst. We’ll also review some tips for making this career change and see what an entry-level data analyst salary looks like.

Using the Power of the R Language to Query an SQL Database

How do you visualize the results of an SQL query? You usually need to use multiple tools to achieve that. Why not use a tool that communicates with SQL directly and can perform any data analysis task? R is a data-oriented programming language that uses packages (libraries) to help you with nearly every imaginable data analysis task and more. Some of these packages allow R connect to an SQL database so you can query it and perform any desired action on the result set.

What is Git, How to Start Working With GitHub–a Beginner Friendly Overview

It looks like everybody in the tech world is using GitHub. Wondering if you need it too? Let’s have a brief beginner-friendly overview to see what Git and GitHub are and how you can start working with them right away. What is Git? We are going to start with defining what Git is and how you can benefit from it. Git is an open-source distributed version control system. What does this mean in simple terms?

SQL INNER JOIN Explained in Simple Words

In this article, I will cover perhaps the most important element of the SQL language. That's right! I'm talking about the SQL INNER JOIN clause. As you know, in a database the data are stored in several tables. In my last article, I covered how to create SQL queries when the data you need is in only one table. But what if the data you need is in two tables?

How do you Become a Successful Freelance Software Developer?

Freelancers are workers who, for one reason or another, decided to work independently. Flexibility and continuous training are usually what interest programmers who approach this career. You might have a lot of questions and wonder: what does it take to become a freelance software developer? In this article, we will give you some tips on how to approach this career and become a successful freelance software developer. Tips to Become a Successful Freelance Software Developer Like all jobs, freelancing comes with its pros and cons.

Jupyter Notebook – the Free Editor for Python

If you have basic knowledge about Python and are looking for an IDE to work with on your own computer, consider the Jupyter Notebook. It is a good tool, especially for Data Science projects. What is Jupyter Notebook? Jupyter Notebook is an open-source server-client application used to create and run mainly Data Science projects. Where does its name come from? JUPYTER is an acronym of Julia, Python, and R, because they were the first programming languages supported by this editor.

Python IDE: PyCharm Tutorial for Beginners

The PyCharm IDE is one of the most popular editors used by professional Python developers and programmers. But if you are a beginner, don’t worry, it can help you too! Find out how to create Python projects using PyCharm and what basic features can help you write code more efficiently. The PyCharm IDE is one of the most popular editors used by professional Python developers and programmers.

Why Python Should Be Your First Programming Language – Python Basics Course Review

Python was my love at first sight. It was at the very beginning of my interest in programming when I took my first Python course, and I instantly fell in love with this language. Unfortunately, I had few opportunities to work professionally in the Python environment, but I kept learning after hours, just for fun, until my new job became too demanding and I simply had no more time for my coding hobby.

Forget About Excel, High Five With SQL!

Find out why you should forget about Excel and start using SQL even if you’re not an IT expert. We’ll show you how easy it is to learn SQL, how it can make you work better, and how Vertabelo Academy makes the learning process fun. “I Don’t Deal With Data” We frequently hear the sentence above from people outside the IT industry. Well, it’s not entirely true. Data is now almost everywhere.

How to Install the PyCharm IDE (Windows and Ubuntu)

This tutorial will show you how to install the PyCharm IDE on your own computer–whether you have Windows or Ubuntu. To start developing with the PyCharm IDE, you need to download and install it on your computer’s operating system. PyCharm is an editor developed by the JetBrains company. As of today, it is the most popular IDE used by Python developers. Knowing this, JetBrains delivers PyCharm in three versions: Professional (full-featured IDE), Community (lightweight IDE, not full-featured), and Educational (community IDE with added education features).

Python Drawing: Intro to Python Matplotlib for Data Visualization (Part 2)

Ever wondered how you can use Python to create stunning data visualizations? In the first part of this series, we saw how to draw line plots and histograms using the matplotlib library. We also saw how to change the default size of a plot and how to add titles, axes, and legends to a plot. In this article, we’ll see a few more types of plots that can be drawn using the matplot library with pro tips on how to improve them.

How to Work with Python Date and Time Objects

At some point in your Python journey, you’ll definitely need to work with dates, times, or both. Learn all the basics of date and time in Python with this short tutorial. Need to calculate how long it’s been since a given date? Working with date and time objects in Python? In this beginner’s guide, we’ll take a look at how to write programs with these two key data types in Python.

Python Drawing: Intro to Python Matplotlib for Data Visualization (Part 1)

Want to know how Python is used for plotting and data visualization? Interested in learning one of the most commonly used data visualization libraries in Python? If so, you’re in the right place. In this installment of a two-part tutorial, we’ll learn how to use matplotlib, one of the most commonly used data visualization libraries in Python. Over the course of both articles, we’ll create different types of graphs, including:

Python Set Operations and More: All You Need to Know About Python Sets

Even if you’re just starting your Python journey, you’ve most likely come across Python sets. But do you know how to use them effectively? This article aims to cover all the main Python set operations to give you a better feel for when and how to use this important data structure. What Are Python Sets? First, let’s start with the basics. A set is a built-in type in Python that has a number of important characteristics:

Customer Churn Prediction with Python

Python is one of the most frequently used programming languages for financial data analysis, with plenty of useful libraries and built-in functionality. In this article, you’ll see how Python’s machine learning libraries can be used for customer churn prediction. Customer churn is a financial term that refers to the loss of a client or customer—that is, when a customer ceases to interact with a company or business. Similarly, the churn rate is the rate at which customers or clients are leaving a company within a specific period of time.

New Course Launch: How to Insert, Update, and Delete Data in MS SQL Server

Learn how the T-SQL data manipulation language (DML) can help you control the information inside your SQL Server database. Do you work with SQL Server? Interested in learning more about the T-SQL language? Then you’re in the right place! We’re excited to introduce our new online course: How to Insert, Update, or Delete Data in MS SQL Server. In this course, you’ll learn about the data manipulation language (DML) statements in T-SQL.

12 Python Tips and Tricks That Every Data Scientist Should Know

You already have some foundational knowledge of Python for data science. But do you write your code efficiently? Check out these tips and tricks to supercharge your Python skills. How to Write Efficient Python Code In this article, we’ll take a look at some tricks that will help you write fast and efficient Python code. I’ll start with how to optimize code that involves the pandas library. If you want to refresh your knowledge of pandas, check out our Introduction to Python for Data Science course.

14 Differences Between Standard SQL and Transact-SQL

In my last article, I roughly described how standard SQL differs from T-SQL and who should learn which. Now I’d like to focus on the syntax differences and illustrate these differences with examples. If you think T-SQL is an extension implementing all the features from standard SQL, you aren’t right. However, in SQL Server you will find almost all the features of the SQL standard. In this article you will find examples of some of the differences in syntax between standard SQL and Transact-SQL.

New Course Launch: How to Read and Write CSV Files in Python

Another Python course is now available on Vertabelo Academy. “How to Read and Write CSV Files in Python” is an online course for anyone interested in working with files in Python—a must-have skill for any beginner software developer or data scientist! After the great success of our SQL courses, we began working hard on the Python learning path. So far, we’ve made five Python courses available, and we’re proud to announce the release of yet another one: How to Read and Write CSV Files in Python!

Visualizing Time Series Data with the Python Pandas Library

How can Python’s pandas library be used to analyze time series data? Let’s find out. The pandas library is frequently used to import, manage, and analyze datasets in a variety of formats. In this article, we’ll use it to analyze Microsoft’s stock prices for previous years. We’ll also see how to perform basic tasks, such as time resampling and time shifting, with pandas. What is Time Series Data? Time series data contains values dependent on some sort of time unit.

Speaking the IT Language: A Basic Technical Dictionary for Non-Technical People

It’s sometimes hard to understand what IT people are talking about because of all the technical terms they throw around. So I compiled this little dictionary of IT terms for beginners! It may seem silly, but communication problems are all too common in IT teams. Programmers and other computer science professionals use a technical language of their own that may not be too accessible to non-technical people. But effective communication is one of the keys to survival in the industry, so it’s definitely worth understanding what those terms mean so you’re on the same page as everyone else.

How to Install the Python Spyder IDE and Run Scripts

One of the most popular Python IDEs is Spyder, which stands for Scientific PYthon Development EnviRonment. This Python tool is “designed by and for scientists, engineers and data analysts.” But it’s not just for professionals. In this article, we’ll learn why the Spyder IDE is also an excellent tool for beginners. In this article, I’ll: Show you how to install Spyder on Windows and Linux. Guide you in starting a project and creating your first Python script.

Regression Analysis in Python

Regression analysis is one of the most fundamental tasks in data-oriented industries. In simple words, it involves finding a relationship between independent and dependent variables (attributes) in a given dataset. Consider the example of a house price prediction problem—given the size and number of bedrooms, we want to predict the price of a house. This is a simple regression problem where the size of the house and the number of bedrooms are the independent variables and the price of the house is the dependent variable.

9 Best Online Resources to Start Learning Python Today

Want to start learning Python but struggling to find quality resources? Well, they're out there—and we'll review them here. In no particular order, here are the best online resources to learn Python. Courses 1. Vertabelo Academy Vertabelo Academy is an interactive e-learning platform that offers six Python courses: Python Basics Part 1. This is the first of a two-part course that covers everything you need to know about Python so you can start writing your own scripts and applications.

New Course Launch: GROUP BY Extensions in MS SQL Server

If you’re looking for an online course to improve your SQL skills for Microsoft SQL Server or simply want to pass the Microsoft SQL certification, you’re in the right place. Vertabelo Academy’s new course—GROUP BY Extensions in MS SQL Server—is a perfect way to learn how to create advanced reports or facilitate ETL processes. At Vertabelo Academy, you’ll find lots of general SQL courses that’ll teach you to work with any relational database.

Path to Becoming an SQL Professional on Vertabelo Academy

So you want to learn SQL and decided to learn with Vertabelo Academy? That's great! This article show you the sequence in which to take the courses in order of increasing difficulty. Courses Teaching Standard SQL (ANSI) If you plan to begin learning SQL and would like to become a professional, your first step is to complete the SQL Basics course. This is the fundamental course that will provide a smooth introduction to the world of relational databases by learning about tables.

Get to Know the Power of SQL Recursive Queries

Level: Advanced Most commonly, the SQL queries we run on a database are quite simple. Well, that depends on your role, of course. Analysts in data warehouses retrieve completely different sorts of information using (very often) much more complicated queries than software engineers creating CRUD applications. However, sometimes it’s simpler or more elegant to run a query that is a little bit more sophisticated without needing further data processing in the code.

T-SQL vs. Standard SQL–What's the Difference?

If you are beginning to learn SQL and are confused by the differences between SQL and other similar languages like T-SQL, this article will help make things clear. You will also find explanations concerning which topics would be better to start learning first: general SQL or something more specific like MS SQL Server. What is SQL? SQL (Structured Query Language) is a basic ANSI/ISO standard programming language designed to operate on data stored in relational databases.

Python Coding Best Practices and Style Guidelines

You’ve spent hours studying Python, and you may even have several successful projects in your portfolio. But do you write your Python code like a pro? Let’s review some important guidelines to help you clean up your code. What Is the Pythonic Way of Writing Code? There are often several ways to do something in Python; naturally, some are better than others. But you should always prefer code that is not only syntactically correct but also in alignment with coding best practices and the way the language ought to be used.

Done with a Python Basics Course? Here’s How to Write Python Code on Your Own Computer

Online Python courses help you acquire basic knowledge of working with Python. But how do you retain what you’ve learned and start writing Python code on your own? Nowadays, there are plenty of e-learning platforms for programming languages like Python. With these platforms, you can learn the fundamentals of the Python language: syntax, basic functions, and programming best practices. On platforms like Vertabelo Academy, for example, you don’t need others tools to work through the content and can get your hands dirty with a language in a sandbox environment.

A Non-Technical Introduction to Learning SQL on Your Lunch Break

Do you think learning SQL will help you in your career? You are right. SQL is one of the easiest computer languages to learn. These days many non-IT employees have SQL skills and use them to extend their professional capacity. Moreover, more and more companies are encouraging their employees in non-IT areas (like sales, advertising, and finances) to learn and use SQL. One of the benefits of empowering employees with SQL skills is that once you answer one data question, the results will generate a new data question, and then perhaps a cascade of further data questions.

Planning a Ski Trip with R Analysis

Each year, I try to arrange some kind of birthday surprise that’ll exceed my husband’s expectations. This year, I’ve got an excellent idea—I’m going to organize a ski trip for us and a few friends with the help of R and the apply family of functions! Overview My husband’s loved snowboarding ever since he learned it in college, and he’s always wanted to find some time to visit our local mountains in the winter.

Going Down to South Park, Part 3: TF-IDF Analysis with R

Do you think it's possible to determine what a text document is about? Read on to see how we can use R to programmatically identify the main topics of several South Park seasons and episodes! In the second article of the series, I showed you how to use R to analyze the differences between South Park characters. I assumed that Eric Cartman is the naughtiest character in the show and tested this hypothesis with real data–check it out to see my conclusion if you haven't already.

18+ Best Online Resources for Learning SQL and Database Concepts (2019 revision)

-- -- We did it again! Each year, we review all SQL courses and tutorials on the market to help you find the best online resources to learn SQL. Find out which SQL courses are worth a try! But let's get to the point and take a closer look at some of the best online resources that can help beginners get started with SQL.

A Typical Day in the Life of an IT Team

Ever wondered what daily life in a tech company looks like but had no one to ask? Let’s take a look at a day on the IT team from the inside. All programmers wear plaid shirts and thick glasses, eat junk food, sleep during the day, stay awake all night, and spend their time in dark basements where the only light comes from a few monitors displaying tons of unintelligible code.

Lucky Thirteen Python Articles of 2018 for Beginners

If you have just started learning Python, now is a great time to develop your skills further. Nowadays it is not problem to find resources about Python on the internet, however, it can be difficult to find good materials to read for beginners. Therefore I decided to gather and share with you my “Lucky thirteen” articles on Python written in 2018. Top 3 Vertabelo Academy Python Articles for Beginners The Vertabelo Academy is an online learning platform that delivers courses on SQL, data science, and Python.

Microsoft SQL Server Pros and Cons

Thinking about using Microsoft SQL Server? If so, you’re in the right place. In this article, we’ll look at the Microsoft SQL Server platform and go over its pros and cons. We’ll also evaluate the platform from both a company’s and a data specialist’s perspective. What Is Microsoft SQL Server? In technical terms, Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system (RDBMS) developed by Microsoft. Essentially, it’s software that allows you to store, change, and manage relational data effectively.

11 Tips for Building a Strong Data Science Portfolio With Python

Looking for some advice to build a data science portfolio that will put you ahead of other aspiring data scientists? Don’t miss these useful tips. Why Have a Portfolio at All? Even though the demand for data scientists is high, the competition for entry-level positions in this field is tough. It should come as no surprise that companies prefer to hire people with at least some real-world experience in data science.

Developing Data Science Projects in Python: A Beginner’s Guide

When you already have some experience with Python, building your own portfolio of data science projects is the best way to showcase your skills to potential employers. But where do you begin with developing your very first Python project? First, Why Develop a Data Science Project? There are a number of career development benefits to creating your own data science project in a language such as Python: Studying.

Python Jobs and Salaries

Python is a simple yet powerful programming language that’s a must for beginners and advanced programmers alike. Here’s why. High-level programming languages have one goal in mind: to make your life as a programmer easier. Messy syntax and obscure keywords? Forget about it. With languages like Python, you can get away with understanding just the basics of programming, enough to begin writing your own scripts and apps. And since Python developers are high in demand, Python is a great language to learn if you want to pursue a career in software development or big data.

A Day in the Life of a Female Data Scientist

There I was—at Nvidia Deep learning & AI, the most prestigious deep learning event, waiting for my hands-on training to begin. It felt great to be there! But as I waited for things to start, observing the others who sat around me, I realized something: most of the attendants were men! In a crowded hall where around 200 people were waiting for a lecture, less than 10% were women. Where were the rest, and why was I one of the few female representatives who attended this conference?

Practical Ways to Improve the Performance of SQL Queries

Knowing how to improve SQL query performance is an important skill, especially when working with with large databases. In this article, you’ll learn how to write more efficient SQL queries to get results faster. The biggest difference between SQL and other languages is that SQL is a non-procedural language. In a non-procedural language you specify the results that you need but not the methods used to get it. The advantage of a non-procedural language is that it is easier to write programs, therefore it is common for non-programmer business users to generate reports from SQL queries.

15 Python Interview Questions for Data Science Jobs

Looking for a data science job? Then you’ve probably noticed that most positions require applicants to have some level of Python programming skills. But how are they going to test this? What are they going to ask? Let’s prepare you for some interview questions! Why Do Data Scientists Need Python? Data science goes beyond simple data analysis and requires that you be able to work with more advanced tools. Thus, if you work with big data and need to perform complex computations or create aesthetically pleasing and interactive plots, Python is one of the most efficient solutions out there.