Internet-based learning is very popular. Knowing your learning style and motivations will help you study smarter, not harder. We tend to spend a lot of time online these days. Between watching funny YouTube videos, catching up on news and celebrity gossip, and binge-watching our favorite Netflix series, we even find the time to learn new skills. But are we in a constant learning process? How can we pluck out – from the vast resources of the Internet – the exact courses and methods that will work for us (or you) personally?
Which books will help you build your database skills? We look at five awesome SQL books. There’s a common saying that “all wise men read books”. I would say that all professionals read books – particularly those related to their field. There are many books about databases and SQL; most are tied to specific vendors (DB2, Oracle, MS SQL) but there are also plenty that are vendor-neutral. In this article, I’m going to review a few books that I would recommend to SQL learners at various levels of proficiency.
The first long SQL query you’ll have to deal with is likely to be hard for you to structure and understand. These five tips will teach you the best way to organize SQL queries, i.e. write and format them. As we all know, SQL queries are essential to database management. Without them, it would be extremely difficult to find and work with the information in a database. Query length depends on the type of information we need and the size of the database.
Database and Business Intelligence (BI) developers create huge numbers of reports on a daily basis, and data analyses are an integral part of them. If you wonder whether you can perform statistical analysis in SQL, the answer is ‘yes’. Read my article to learn how to do this! Statistics are very useful as an initial stage of a more in-depth analysis, i.e. for data overview and data quality assessment. However, SQL statistical analysis possibilities are somewhat limited as there are not many statistical functions in SQL Server.
What is a Common Table Expression, or CTE? Where do you use them, and why? This post answers your questions. Simply put, Common Table Expressions (also known as WITH clauses) are essentially named subqueries. They also provide additional features like recursion. If you’re new to subqueries, I recommend you read the SQL Subqueries article before continuing. The main purpose of Common Table Expressions is to improve the design and readability of an SQL statement.
NULLs are necessary in relational databases, and learning to use them is fundamental to SQL success. However, NULLs should also be handled with care, as we explain in this post. In relational databases, we don’t always have a value to put in a column. For example, suppose we have a table called “persons” that has “first_name”, “last_name”, “birth_date” and “marriage_date” columns. What value will we store in the “marriage_date” column for single persons?
Congratulations! Your SQL skills were strong enough to get you that job interview! Now, if you only knew what SQL questions and practical exercises a recruiter might ask you to do… In this article, we help you prepare for the SQL and database aspects of a job interview. In a previous article, I explained how can you boost your career by learning SQL. It opens up opportunities in and out of IT, as this query language is used practically everywhere.
There are two major camps in the relational database development world: OLTP and OLAP. In this post, we consider the differences and similarities of these two systems. First of all, both OLTP (on-line transactional processing) and OLAP (on-line analytical processing) are used in business applications, especially — although not exclusively — in data warehousing and analytics. Together, they form the two different sides of the analytics/warehousing coin: storing and manipulating the data on one hand and analyzing it on the other.
You’ve know about using SQL with databases. How does SQL fit in with app development? In this post, we look at the app development process, how it intersects with modeling a database, and what developers can do with SQL outside of their app. Obviously, the beginning of this process is defining your app — what it does, who it is for, how it will function and look, etc. Let’s say you’ve done that work already and you’re preparing to start the more detailed stuff.
Vertabelo Academy is a great place to learn SQL. If you’re a complete beginner, it’s best to have an overview of what SQL is, what a database is, and how they work together. In this article, you’ll find a quick explanation of all you need to get started with SQL. The Database You might have already heard that SQL is used with databases. What exactly is a database? In the most general sense, it is an organized collection of various kinds of data.
So you have some SQL skills and you’re looking for a job that will use them. What are your options? SQL is everywhere, and there’s a huge demand for people with database management skills. This is especially the case when companies start implementing Big Data solutions and strategies. There’s no arguing that SQL is a must-have skill. If you’re already proficient, how can you put your expertise to practical use in the job market?
Describing a “typical” day for an SQL developer is not easy. When your daily work is using various technologies to create interesting database-oriented products, very few days are alike! Each day brings a new and intriguing challenge. Nevertheless, I’ll have a go at explaining what everyday things an SQL developer might do. Morning: Arrive at Work The cornerstone of any software engineering endeavor is caffeine, and lots of it.
Relational databases support several date and time data types. In this article, we’ll look at several arithmetic operations we can do on these types. These operations are logical and understandable, even for the beginning SQL coder. Let’s first briefly explain the main data types used for dates and times. Keep in mind that data types may differ by database engine, so check your database documentation for specifics before you start working with them.
GROUP BY is an important part of the SQL SELECT statement. But new SQL coders can run into some problems when this clause is used incorrectly. Here’s how to avoid those issues. You’re learning SQL. You know how to SELECT some data FROM a table and how to filter the data with a WHERE clause. You can process the data using aggregate functions (MIN, MAX, SUM, AVG, and others). But when you’re dealing with a lot of data, you may need to narrow it down even more.
The tech sector is experiencing strong job growth. Should SQL be on your list of must-have skills? If you’re even remotely interested in finding a new job, you’ve probably noticed that IT jobs are hot. Not only are a lot of these jobs available, they offer some pretty great opportunities to challenge yourself, grow, and build new skills. And the compensation tends to be pretty awesome too. In today’s world, technology is evolving at an almost daily pace, and this is producing a flood of data that has to be managed.
How can you store textual information in database tables? Thanks to this post, you’ll learn the characteristics of every text data type in SQL Note: This post is intended for readers familiar with SQL data definition language (DDL) and the DDL CREATE statement. To learn more about DDL, check out Vertabelo SQL Academy. Most data types are classified as NUMERIC, CHARACTER, or DATE. In this post, we’re going to focus on each CHARACTER or text data type in SQL.
Using UNION, UNION ALL, EXCEPT, and INTERSECT to manage SQL query results. The function of SQL set operators is pretty simple; they allow us to combine results from different SQL queries into one result set. The best way to understand how set operators work is to use visual methods like the Venn diagram. For those of you not familiar with Venn diagrams, they are two circles that represent items or collections of items.
We all make mistakes when learning a new language – especially at the beginning. New words, complicated grammar… Everyone needs time to master a language. But when we get immediate feedback, we can progress more quickly. The same goes for learning SQL. Mastering SQL Queries Interactive SQL courses are one way to get immediate feedback on your queries. These courses, like the ones offered in Vertabelo Academy, usually introduce new concepts and then ask you to have a go at them right away.
Code errors are common – and frustrating. And when you’re just learning SQL, it can be very challenging to find and fix your mistakes. In this post, we’ll show you eight ways to solve or eliminate common SQL coding errors. Today, we’ll talk about some tips the SQL beginner can use to avoid several common errors. These tips work in any database environment. As we go along, we’ll be showing some error messages.
Learning a new skill can be a daunting task, especially in programming. SQL is not immune to this. Luckily, with the Internet and the explosion of programming-related information out there, we have a lot of options! But we then come to a new roadblock. Where to begin? How will we know which option is best for our budget, skill level, and schedule? This article tackles these questions and gives you a roadmap – or should we say a couple of them – of your journey towards SQL proficiency.
Sometimes, using a SQL correlated subquery is the only way to solve a statement. But these subqueries can be very slow. In this post, we’ll talk about when to use a correlated subquery, why, and how to do it. Subqueries are an important resource for increasing the expressive power of SQL. If you haven’t read our previous article, subqueries are simply a SELECT statement inside another SELECT. We can use them in different places inside a SELECT, such as in the WHERE, HAVING, or FROM clauses.
As you learn SQL, watch out for these common coding mistakes You’ve written some SQL code and you’re ready to query your database. You input the code and …. no data is returned. Instead, you get an error message. Don’t despair! Coding mistakes are common in any programming language, and SQL is no exception. In this post, we’ll discuss five common SQL syntax errors people make when writing code.
As you learn SQL, watch out for these common coding mistakes You’ve written some SQL code and you’re ready to query your database. You input the code and …. no data is returned. Instead, you get an error message. Don’t despair! Coding errors are common in any programming language, and SQL is no exception. In this post, we’ll discuss five common mistakes people make when writing SQL. Watch Your Language (and Syntax) The most common SQL error is a syntax error.
The database can do different kinds of computations: it can add and subtract, multiply and divide, it can do computations on dates, it can count rows and sum row values, and so on. It can also do quite sophisticated statistics. The GROUP BY clause is the most basic way to compute statistics in SQL. It can be quite tough for beginners but it is really powerful. Let’s look at the details of the GROUP BY clause, starting with the basics.
In the previous article, I described how to use Common Table Expressions to find the shortest path in a directed graph. That example could be hard to follow, I admit. Let’s do something much more common, something that is implemented on almost every website – a menu. But… we’ll do as much as possible in a single SQL query instead of writing the code. We’ll use CTEs for PostgreSQL and the hierarchical query clause for Oracle.
A SQL JOIN is a method to retrieve data from two or more database tables. This article presents a basic overview of what data from a particular SQL join will look like. A popular way of understanding SQL joins is to visualize them using Venn diagrams, so each example have corresponding Venn diagram, appropriate SELECT statement and the result table. There are a few major kinds of SQL joins:
The article describes what a subquery is and what these useful statements look like. We will cover basic examples with the IN, EXISTS, ANY, and ALL operators, look at subqueries in from and where clauses, and explore the difference between correlated and nested subqueries. First, let’s start with an example database. To present some of these statements we need to have an example table and fill it with some data.
Usually we try to avoid NULLs, but sometimes we need to have a NULL instead of an actual value. When this need pops up, a helpful but little-known SQL function called NULLIF makes it possible. This post will introduce you to NULLIF and demonstrate its use in two example cases. In the article How to Tackle NULLS: The COALESCE Function , we got to know the COALESCE function. It returns the first not-null expression.
You’re probably already familiar with simple SQL queries, such as “SELECT * FROM table”. Now you are wondering what to do when you have multiple tables and you want to join them. Exactly! JOIN is the key. In this tutorial, you will learn how to connect data from multiple tables using SQL JOINs. What are SQL JOINs? Databases usually have more than one table. JOINs are an SQL construction used to join data from two or more tables.
It’s inevitable that some data in the database has no value what in SQL is represented by the NULL keyword. “No value” here is different from zero, false, or an empty string (but with exceptions! In Oracle database, NULL is the same as string of zero length). During playing with the database, treating NULLs are becoming more and more troublesome, therefore >MySQL standard provides help with some of the functions, like COALESCE.
There are 250+ computer programming languages in popular use. Why should you learn SQL, or Structured Query Language? Why Should I Learn SQL? Are you interested in boosting your career? Wondering what skills are worth investing in? If you’re currently in your dream job, still searching for it, or even thinking about starting your own business, it pays to develop your technical skills. A solid technical background is highly in demand among recruiters, and it provides the necessary underpinnings for managing the IT side of your business.